看BBC,学口语写作9
来源: | 作者:理想国教育 | 发布时间: 2019-12-29 | 721 次浏览 | 分享到:
我们时常听到这样的故事,很多不慎丢失的宠物能够从几十甚至几百公里意外走回家。但科学家似乎还不能解释它们是怎么找回家的。那么,今天我们来一起学习的话题是:宠物是怎样导航回家的呢(How do pets navigate?)


There are a few theories about how cats and dogs navigate – but we don’t yet have the full answer.关于猫狗如何导航回家,有许多理论研究。但是都没有得到圆满的答案。


Both cats and dogs have an extremely powerful sense of smell, of course. Smells are like signposts – they let you know where you are. Visual landmarks also play a role, just as they do with humans. A landmark is something very easily recognised – a big building or mountain for example.猫和狗够具有强大的嗅觉能力。嗅觉就相当于指示牌,可以让他们知道自己在哪。可视化路标也有重要作用,就像对人类的作用一样,路标很容易被认出来,比如一幢大楼或一座山。


And what about this one: magnets are pieces of metal which attract certain other kinds of metal - for example, iron or steel. The Earth itself has a magnetic force.那这个呢:磁铁属于金属的一部分,但它可以吸引另一种金属,比如铁或者钢。地球本身也存在磁力。


Birds use it to help them navigate over thousands of miles – it tells them where north is. It’s thought they have some iron in their beaks.鸟儿们根据磁力飞行数千英里——因此磁力可以告诉它们哪边是北方。有人认为它们的嘴里带有铁质物质。


But some scientists think mammals also have this capability.但有些科学家认为哺乳类动物同样有这种能力。


So we have a few ideas –smell, landmarks, magnetic forces – but can we explain how one kitty travelled over 200 miles by itself back to its home?那么我们有点思路了,嗅觉、路标、磁力——但是怎么解释一只猫能够独自徒步200多英里回到家呢?


Let's hear from cat and dog expert Dr John Bradshaw. How do cats build up the maps in their heads?来听听猫犬专家约翰·布拉德肖博士怎么说。猫咪是如何在大脑中构建地图的?


What they do when they are in a new territory is explore it in a very systematic way. So they will go out in ever-increasing circles, they'll literally construct a mental map in their heads. And so a cat that’s lost its territory probably does the same thing. They'll rely on the idea that if they go out in ever-increasing circles or rectangles then eventually they'll either come across the territory or they'll come across a smell carried on the wind of the territory that they used to live in and then be able to go home.它们在陌生领域会用一种非常系统化的方式探索周围环境。因此它们会以自己为中心不断扩大活动范围,在头脑中构建一张虚拟地图。一只猫离开自己领地可能也会做同样的事情。它们会有一种想法:如果将活动范围以圆圈或矩形逐渐扩大,或许它们会偶然找回曾经住过的地方,或者凭借风中传来的气味找回家。


Cats have a systematic approach – which means they use a system. Which is: first they walk around their area in a small circle, then a bigger one and then a bigger one – until they have a strong mental map of the place.猫有一种系统的方式,也就是说它们利用一种系统。首先,它们会在脑海中将自己周围圈起来,然后将圆圈不断扩大直到在头脑中勾画出这个地方的地图。


Yes – a mental map is a map in your head – stored in your memory. And the area cats explore – their home area - is called their territory. Cats are territorial – which means their territory is very important to them.是的,心理地图是指你头脑中的地图,保存在你的记忆中。猫所探索的地区,也就是它们的家所在的地区,就是它们的领地。猫是很有领土意识的,领地对它们来说非常重要。


Having a map is great, but what happens when a cat gets lost? Dr Bradshaw says that again, it moves around in bigger and bigger circles, until it finds a clue – which is a landmark or a smell – that tells it where it is. Well, that's the theory. Though Dr Bradshaw says we really still don't have enough data – that's enough information about this.能有地图是一件很棒的事,但要是一只猫走丢了呢?布拉德肖博士也说了,猫会不断扩大活动范围,直到发现线索——一个路标,或一种气味,明白自己现在的位置。就是这个理论。即使布拉德肖博士表示还缺乏足够的数据,但这些信息足以回答那个问题了。


(Reference: BBC,可可英语)